For a lithium-ion battery to work properly, you have to charge it for a long time. With these batteries, you can give your devices great performances, but for this, to work, you must charge it. If you do not use the correct lithium ion battery charger, this also affects its performance.
You have to know thoroughly about these batteries and how good it is when you use it in the right way. Find out about the chemistry behind the lithium battery, the ion discharge, and the conditions for you to charge the battery. You should also take precautions when wanting to charge the battery not to overcharge and damage it.
With this battery in your device, you will have good control over your charging, discharging, and reaching excellent speeds. Lithium-ion batteries allow you to have a high-performance device, good utility, and long life. You can get a lot out of the battery as long as you follow the rules when charging devices.
The Chemistry Behind Lithium-Ion Batteries
The chemistry behind lithium-ion batteries is not at all complicated for you to understand. When the entire ion battery goes into its discharge phase, then an external circuit will supply current. Inside the battery, the anode will release a charge of ions which is a form of oxidation in which it passes to the cathode.
All the electrons of these ions that have left would be flowing in the opposite direction. The ions will flow in the direction of the electronic circuit that at that moment would be feeding. Finally, the circuit is completed when the electrons and ions come together at the cathode.
This process is responsible for releasing all the chemical energy in the cell but with a different electrical energy form. These reactions go in adverse directions in the charging circuit, with the lithium ions moving from the cathode to the anode. The electrons that come from the external circuit will combine with these ions to give good electrical storage energy.
You must bear in mind that this charging method is not entirely efficient because part of the energy is often lost. Lithium-ion batteries have a 95% efficiency level where at least 5% of charge is lost. This percentage of effective charge will also depend on how much you use the battery to connect it.
Some Conditions For You To Charge A Lithium-Ion Battery
To charge a 12v lithium ion battery correctly, you will have to meet some conditions. This lithium-ion charging process differs from the NiMH or Ni-Cads batteries you use. You will not be able to charge these batteries on the same electrical circuit for many reasons.
The first reason these lithium batteries differ from conventional ones is because of their voltage dependence. These batteries do not depend on current but their internal voltage storage. They are more similar to lead-acid batteries that you can also use in your appliances.
Another reason lithium-ion batteries are efficient is because of their storage voltage per cell. They are batteries that can store 3.7 to 4 volts for each cell instead of 1.2 V like ordinary batteries. With ion cells, the voltage tolerance is higher and tighter at full charge.
These cells protect the lithium charge when it reaches full capacity without letting it retain an extra charge. With this system, the lithium avoids being overcharged and damaging the device that works using the battery. This system is of great importance because these lithium-ion batteries are not tolerable to overcharging.
Lithium-Ion Battery Overcharging
Overcharging the lithium-ion batteries will put the life of the device or battery itself at risk. In extreme overload, the battery could explore or catch fire, causing the device’s total loss.
Many of these commercially available lithium batteries are typically charged at 4.2 volts each cell. These batteries have a tolerance of 50 megavolts for each cell that composes it. If you charge the cell much more, this can cause fatigue and, therefore, the oxidation of the battery reducing its life.
You can have a slight curve in battery discharge with a fairly controlled lithium-ion cell. Lithium cell types have some different voltage tolerances but will always have a discharge control. You will not notice a greater difference in the 12v lithium ion battery than the 4.5 volts.
Charges In The Lithium-Ion Battery In Its Different Types
With a lithium-ion battery, you have to know what its two types of charge are:
- Constant current charging
It represents the first stage in lithium-ion battery charging and works to control current. It has a regular charge of 0.5 and up to 1.0 C, although this can be overcome by battery storage. With a battery of up to 2000 mah, its charge rate is the same without losing any energy.
With LCO batteries that are consumer-based, you must use a charge rate that does not exceed 0.8 C. At this stage, all the voltage found in the cells can increase their charge in constant current. The time in which the charge will be completed is at least 1 hour.
- Saturation loading
Over time the storage voltage can peak at least 4.2 V in a single cell. For this stage, the battery will enter the saturation charge that will maintain a constant voltage of 4.2 V. When the charge cycle ends; all this current will drop by 10% towards the nominal current.
The time in which this cell will be charged can be two hours, depending on the battery’s conditions. Charging may take a little longer if the cell manufacturer uses low-quality products.
The amount of charge retained in the battery versus the charging efficiency entering the cell is very high. These batteries can achieve a charge amount of at least 95% or 99% in quality cells. This may reflect some low levels in battery temperature rise.
Lithium Battery Charging Precautions
For the amount of energy stored in the lithium battery, you have to check that its charge is adequate. These cell chargers have some mechanisms in which you can avoid some dangers. Many of these extra elements are built into the battery that would also be used as a common charger.
The mechanism that is built into the lithium battery for charging or discharging includes some things:
- Charging temperature
You have to control the charging temperature with the ion battery at all times. These cells do not have to be charged if the temperature is below 0 degrees Celsius or is above 45 degrees.
- Charging current
You have to limit yourself to using the charging current in the lithium battery; the average value is 0.8 degrees centigrade. Some batteries can give you lower margins which can give you a very fast charge.
If lithium batteries carry a higher current load, this can also affect their useful life. The more you can have a low charge and not use fast charging on the battery, the better its performance.
You must protect your lithium battery against overvoltage in charge to avoid that the voltage is too high. Allowing the voltage to rise too high can damage the Wahl lithium ion.
- Discharge current
You will have to protect your battery against the discharge current not to suffer explosions or damage to your devices. These batteries have a cell limit, and you don’t have to exceed them at all. As these batteries retain a large amount of energy, the device could catch fire if you exceed the load limits.
In general, these batteries have some circuits for charge and discharge management, ensuring greater safety. Even if you have this technology, it is best not to exceed its charging limits, avoiding damaging the battery.
- Protection against reverse polarity
You have to check if the lithium battery’s charge is correct and not do it in the reverse direction. If you lead a charge in reverse, this can damage the battery in a few minutes.
- Protection against overload
This overload protection circuit is ideal for switching the lithium load when the voltage reaches 100%. Many of these batteries have this technology so that the lifetime is longer.
Protection against overheating is very common so that the battery does not work if the temperature rises in the device. The maximum temperature in these batteries is 40 degrees Celsius after there could cause serious damage.
With the lithium ion battery charger, you have a great list of safety protocols on your side. You must worry about the overheating of your appliances so as not to let them damage. Each lithium battery has its technology and a useful life according to the use that you can give it.
Can A Lithium-Ion Battery Be Charged With A Lead-Acid Battery Charger?
Although lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries are similar in operation, it does not mean that they share the same charge. An ion battery can have 12 volts in its fully charged state, maintaining 13.3 to 13.4 volts. The lead-acid battery will hold a charge with up to 12.6 to 12.7 volts maximum.
If the lithium battery is 20% charged, the storage voltage will remain at 12 volts. If the lead-acid battery reaches 20% of its charge, its storage in volts will be 11.8. You may notice that the retention of charges in both batteries is very different.
The lithium-ion charger contains a limiter for the voltage, but they have a very high voltage in cells. If you place the lead-acid charger with the lithium-ion battery, the charge may not be completed. You should also not use the lead-acid charger on the lithium battery because it does not have a margin that limits its charge.