What is a hybrid car? The time has come to know everything related to this type of car. Also, you will know which with the advantages and disadvantages of these cars that are in trend among manufacturers that develop new car models to bring to the market.
What are hybrid cars?
A hybrid car can become a great solution for people who want to go everywhere with their car. When talking about the word hybrid, it refers to combining a traditional vehicle and an electric vehicle.
Hybrid cars are known as transitional vehicles because of the electromobility they offer. That is why they are increasingly popular with buyers who want to buy a new vehicle.
However, before purchasing a hybrid vehicle, you must know how it works. Before acquiring one, you can know details such as the amount of fuel savings, how I can charge, and other points.
In recent years, many hybrid vehicles have appeared on the market, and some models turn out to be irresistible. Generally, the hybrid car must use two different power sources for the engine to move properly.
Likewise, the different energy sources are also important to move the wheels of the vehicle.
Normally, hybrid vehicles combine an electric motor with a gasoline one. Likewise, you can find other options such as compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, or diesel and electric engines.
Another detail that cannot go unnoticed is that all these engines have the ECO environmental label from the DGT. However, some exceptions are with some plug-in hybrids for their electric mode autonomy and have a label of 0 emissions.
How does a hybrid car work?
Although it may not seem like it, a hybrid car’s operation becomes very simple. As you have already seen in the previous point, hybrid cars combine an electric motor and a gasoline motor.
Also, its propulsion system has three different functions:
- The gasoline engine is responsible for moving the wheels.
- The electric motor drives the wheels.
- Or both, they can work together to send power to the wheels at the same time.
This type of car also has an automatic gearbox and can be a dual-clutch. However, it can be CVT or torque converter type.
How does the propulsion system work?
The powertrain of hybrid vehicles is fully autonomous. Thus, it is responsible for managing the transitions between the electric and thermal motor. This makes life easier for drivers because they should not interfere with its proper functioning.
For this reason, these types of vehicles are known as hybrids. And the best of all is that you can choose with what you want to move and for this, each of the brands configures different driving modes. And they do this to dictate the operation that is responsible for the powertrain.
The pure electric mode can be known through different terms, and this will depend on the brand. Some can be ECO, while others can be EV or another brand used according to the manufacturer.
For this process to work properly, the hybrid battery must be sufficiently charged. Also, the maximum speed limit must be met so that the electric motor can easily send power to the wheels.
When some of these two parameters are not met, either due to excessive speed or low load, correct operation is not carried out. In this way, it must be replaced by the internal combustion engine.
There are several types of hybrid engines
Suppose there are several types of hybrid engines, such as the plug-in hybrid and the self-charging hybrid. But there are also other types of hybrid engines that you should know about. Those that run on natural gas are available, and it can be said that they are one of the most important due to their configuration.
A gas car can work with this element or with gasoline. The gas can be LPG or CNG, but gasoline cannot be used when using this component. That is, you cannot use both at the same time.
Likewise, there are differences between a CNG vehicle and an LPG vehicle, and they can be seen through their advantages and disadvantages. However, both vehicles have the ECO environmental label, so they become the best alternative to traditional vehicles.
What are the components of the hybrid engine?
This will depend on the type of hybrid since each propulsion system may be made up of different elements. When the hybrid vehicle is non-plug-in, its system will be made up of a gasoline engine. It could also be made up of a hybrid battery or an electric motor.
As for the combustion engine, this could be diesel, as is the case with vehicles such as the Mercedes E 300. In the market, you can also find mild hybridization vehicles or also known as micro-hybrid vehicles. These types of vehicles are in trend since they have been highly sought after today.
Instead of having an electric motor separate from the heat engine, this type of car has an electric motor-generator that works for starting and as an alternator. This component is one of the most optimal since it replaces all these elements and is united.
Its correct operation is driven by the car’s timing belt and strengthens the start-stop effect. It also keeps all the car’s systems fully active. And in addition to that, it has a better battery in size than what you are used to seeing.
Gas cars do not have a battery or a second electric motor. These have additional deposits for the storage of LPG or CNG. Of course, there is also one for the storage of traditional gas among the additional tanks.
How can a hybrid save?
A hybrid saves on the electricity it uses to drive the wheels. Also, when you use the electric motor, only the heat engine will automatically disconnect.
Thus, there will be no fuel consumption, and instead, the electrical energy that is already stored in the battery will be used. The more miles you can travel using the electric mode, the more gasoline or diesel you can save.
As for the self-recharging hybrids, these have a shorter electrical autonomy than the others. They can travel less than 5 m with a charged battery. But they can act several times during the same journey because their battery can be charged more easily.
On the other hand, a plug-in hybrid has greater autonomy and can travel up to 80 km. For this reason, they are considered one of the hybrids that have greater autonomy than those found on the market. They can even circulate at a speed of 130 kilometers per hour, depending on the vehicle model.
Microhybrid also has their way of saving, and this is produced through the disconnections of the heat engine. You can take advantage of this type of savings in the city due to inertia on the highway.
Depending on the micro-hybrid model, the savings can be approximately 0.7 liters for a 100 km journey. As for gas cars, the case could be different.
Also, the price of gas can be taken into account. The price of LPG fuel per liter is 0.70 euros, while CNG fuel price could have 1 euro for each kilogram.
How many batteries does a hybrid car have?
The hybrid car has two batteries. One is the hybrid battery, and it is the one that is in charge of feeding the electric motor. It has a traditional 12-volt battery and is responsible for sending energy to the car’s basic elements and the headlights.
In turn, this is in charge of starting the combustion engine, although depending on the system’s configuration, there may be changes. This work can be done by the electric motor or by the energy obtained by the hybrid battery.
When the vehicle is on gas, it will only have a 12-volt battery because there is no second engine that powers the propulsion system.
How is the recharge of this type of battery?
First, the recharge of the hybrid battery will depend on the model in question. For example, recharging a Toyota is likely not the same as recharging a Mercedes.
When the hybrid is self-recharging, the battery can recharge itself by energy regeneration systems. There is regenerative braking, inertia, and the recharge generated by the heat engine in hybrid care.
These systems that work to recharge the battery are the most common in hybrid engines. In general, recharging through these systems is very fast, so it will only take a few minutes.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of hybrid engines?
Hybrid engines have both their advantages and disadvantages, and you can see some of them below.
- Fuel consumption is lower.
- Gasoline or diesel can be better used because it works at an optimal level.
- The extra power is supplied by an electric motor.
- There will be reductions in the emissions of pollutant particles.
- Mobility is electric.
- They have the ECO environmental label, and this is advantageous.
What are the disadvantages of a hybrid car?
- Due to its number of components, it will increase its weight.
- In most cases, hybrid vehicles are more expensive than traditional ones.
- Its reliability may be a bit reduced due to the complexity of its propulsion system.