The use of electric cars is increasing, however, there are different types of electric cars that use different technology.
Depending on the strategy they use for their operation, these are the acronyms used to identify them in the market. It is clear that the use of electric cars is becoming increasingly popular, as governments apply greater tax benefits and incentives for their use.
An example of this is that there are areas where special parking areas are allocated, and there are also cities, in which, when using the different types of electric cars, free movement is allowed, even on days where there are restrictions by the number of the license plate of the car.
Electric cars are becoming more and more diversified. The need to produce vehicles that adapt to the different needs of the market leads to the use of different types of technologies, implemented in the charging system and power generation system.
Despite the above, they all have a common goal, to use electricity in a lesser or greater way.
We explain the main derivations in the design and production of electric vehicles.
According to their type of propulsion, electric vehicles are classified into:
EV: Electric Vehicle
This would be the general classification by which we should start, when referring to any type of vehicle that uses electrical energy, to be used in the mobility of passengers or cargo. Electric vehicles are not a novelty, it is known from models produced more than a hundred years ago, and that they were the precursors of this type of technology.
Its use had been left aside since the exploitation of fossil fuels spread, and this made the mass production of vehicles, to a large extent, occur with internal combustion engines.
However, today the use of electric cars is on the rise, and in the next ten years, they are expected to have a market share of almost 50%.
HEV: Hybrid Electric Vehicle
In this type of electric vehicle we find what is commonly known as a Conventional Hybrid Vehicle or Pure Hybrid. They are characterized because a conventional combustion engine (with fossil fuel) is used for their operation to generate the charge of the electric battery.
This is possible since they have an Inverter that transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy, which is taken directly to the battery.
This battery is a set of cell packs that are joined together to increase capacity. Furthermore, this type of vehicle takes advantage of the inertia produced during braking, to charge the batteries.
PHEV: Plug-in Electric Hybrid Vehicle
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles are the types of electric vehicles that use an internal combustion engine (with fossil fuel) to generate the battery charge, but which also have the possibility of being plugged into the power supply network (Companies of Provision of Public Energy Services) to charge the battery.
The advantage is that if you do not have the ability to refuel, you have the option of charging the battery more efficiently in the power distribution network.
FCEV or FCV: Electric Vehicle with Fuel Cell
This type of vehicle is used in countries that seek to implement zero emissions. Its principle is based on using a Hydrogen Cell to propel electric motors.
You can also combine half hydrogen cell and half electric backup battery. The cells use compressed air or hydrogen.
This type of technology is already in use, it is mainly used for forklift operation in food warehouses and confined spaces, where no type of polluting emission is allowed.
MHEV: Semi Hybrid or Micro Hybrid Electric Car
Semi-Hybrid or Micro Hybrid vehicles use the internal combustion engine (Fossil Fuel) as their main power powertrain.
However, they also house a 48 Volt Battery with an Electric Motor that is used, as a complement in the generation of power, required for the movement of the vehicle.
This makes the use of the internal combustion engine more efficient and fuel consumption is reduced.
Due to its rapid torque response, an electric motor, accompanied by an internal combustion engine, generates torque assist and torque boost to improve the overall dynamic performance of the powertrain.